Journal of Medicine and Palliative Care (JOMPAC) is an open access scientific journal with independent, unbiased, and double-blind review under international guidelines. The purpose of JOMPAC is to contribute to the literature by publishing articles on health sciences and medicine.

EndNote Style
Original Article
Development and progression of myopia in emmetropic children in Turkey
Aims: To investigate the development and progression of myopia in emmetrope school-aged children in Turkey.
Methods: This retrospective study included emmetrope children aged 6-18 who attended the ophthalmology clinic for regular eye and refractive examinations between 2010 and 2021. Individuals were examined at least twice for six months period. Myopia progression was calculated as the difference between the baseline and the last visit spherical equivalent refractive (SER) values. Individuals were further categorized to determine the age-specific myopia development and progression as 6-11, 12-16, and 17-18 age groups based on the school periods of the country. According to the change in SER values, individuals were classified into those who remain emmetrope and those who develop myopia.
Results: A total of 738 eyes of 369 children (222 female, 147 male) with a mean age of 9.4±2.98 (6-18) years were included in the study. The mean follow-up time of patients was 45.62±26.36 (6-130) months. The baseline mean SER value was -0.01±0.10 D (range: -0.375 and +0.375) and -0.44±0.8 (range: -5.00 and +0.375) at the final visit. The overall mean progression was -0.12±0.25 D/year (range: -2.21 and +0.36). 234 eyes (31.75%) developed myopia, and annual SER change was -0.38±0.31 D/year (p<0.001). 79 (35.7%) of females and 38 (25.9%) of males developed myopia with a statistical significance (p<0.006). There were 163 children between 6-11 years, 169 children between 12-16 years, 37 children between 17-18 years, and 41 (25.2%), 69 (40.8%), and 7 (18.9%) patients of age groups developed myopia, respectively (p=0.15).
Conclusion: The development and progression of myopia is more common in 12-16 ages and females. Myopia prevention recommendations should be carefully advised to predisposed age populations and females to reduce myopia progression.

1. Myopia J, Mariotti S, Kocur I, et al. The impact of myopia andhigh myopia. Report of the Joint World Health Organization-Brien Holden Vision Institute Global Scientific Meeting onMyopia, 2015.
2. Holden BA, Fricke TR, Wilson DA, et al. Global Prevalence ofMyopia and High Myopia and Temporal Trends from 2000through 2050. Ophthalmology. 2016;123(5):1036-1042.
3. Morgan IG, French AN, Ashby RS, et al. The epidemics of myopia:Aetiology and prevention. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2018;62:134-149.
4. Iribarren R, Cortinez MF, Chiappe JP. Age of first distanceprescription and final myopic refractive error. OphthalmicEpidemiol. 2009;16(2):84-89.
5. Ohno-Matsui K, Wu PC, Yamashiro K, et al. IMI PathologicMyopia [published correction appears in Invest Ophthalmol VisSci. 2021;62(7):17]. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2021;62(5):5.
6. French AN, Ashby RS, Morgan IG, Rose KA. Time outdoors andthe prevention of myopia. Exp Eye Res. 2013;114:58-68.
7. McCullough SJ, O&rsquo;Donoghue L, Saunders KJ. Six year refractivechange among white children and young adults: evidence forsignificant ıncrease in myopia among white UK children. PLoSOne. 2016;11(1):e0146332.
8. Villarreal MG, Ohlsson J, Abrahamsson M, Sj&ouml;strom A, Sj&ouml;strandJ. Myopisation: the refractive tendency in teenagers. Prevalenceof myopia among young teenagers in Sweden. Acta OphthalmolScand. 2000;78(2):177-181.
9. French AN, Morgan IG, Burlutsky G, Mitchell P, Rose KA.Prevalence and 5- to 6-year incidence and progression of myopiaand hyperopia in Australian schoolchildren. Ophthalmology.2013;120(7):1482-1491.
10. Saw SM, Tong L, Chua WH, et al. Incidence and progression ofmyopia in Singaporean school children. Invest Ophthalmol VisSci. 2005;46(1):51-57.
11. Fan DS, Lam DS, Lam RF, et al. Prevalence, incidence, andprogression ofmyopia of school children in Hong Kong. InvestOphthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45(4):1071-1075.
12. Zhou WJ, Zhang YY, Li H, et al. Five-year progression ofrefractive errors and incidence of myopia in school-aged childrenin Western China. J Epidemiol. 2016;26(7):386-395.
13. Saxena R, Vashist P, Tandon R, et al. Prevalence of myopia andits risk factors in urban school children in Delhi: the North IndiaMyopia Study (NIM Study). PLoS One. 2015;10(2):e0117349.
14. Czepita D, Mojsa A, Ustianowska M, Czepita M, Lachowicz E.Role of gender in the occurrence of refractive errors. Ann AcadMed Stetin. 2007;53(2):5-7.
15. Jobke S, Kasten E, Vorwerk C. The prevalence rates of refractiveerrors among children, adolescents, and adults in Germany. ClinOphthalmol. 2008;2(3):601-607.
16. Grzybowski A, Kanclerz P, Tsubota K, Lanca C, Saw SM. A reviewon the epidemiology of myopia in school children worldwide.BMC Ophthalmology. 2020;20(1):27.
17. Donovan L, Sankaridurg P, Ho A, Naduvilath T, Smith EL 3rd,Holden BA. Myopia progression rates in urban children wearingsingle-vision spectacles. Optom Vis Sci. 2012;89(1):27-32.
18. Chua WH, Balakrishnan V, Chan YH, et al. Atropine for thetreatment of childhood myopia. Ophthalmology. 2006;113(12):2285-2291.
19. Wong K, Dahlmann-Noor A. Myopia and its progression inchildren in London, UK: a retrospective evaluation. J Optometry.2020;13(3):146-154.
20. Kaya P, Uzel MM. Development and progression of myopiain children during the COVID-19 pandemic in urban area inTurkey. Int Ophthalmol. 2023;10.1007/s10792-023-02824-w.
Volume 4, Issue 5, 2023
Page : 380-384